Bahrain and Belarus have been added to Reporters Without Borders' annual list of "enemies of the internet".
They join 10 other nations on the campaign group's register of states that restrict net access, filter content and imprison bloggers.
India and Kazakhstan have also joined RWB's list of "countries under surveillance" because of concerns that they are becoming more repressive.
The body says 2011 was the "deadliest year" yet for so-called "netizens".
It says at least 199 arrests of internet campaigners were recorded over the year - a 31% increase on 2010.
It adds that China, followed by Vietnam and Iran currently hold the largest number of netizens in jail.
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